Augmentin (Clavulanate): Antibiotic Uses, Side Effects, Contraindications, and Precautions
Augmentin was developed back in 1979 and has since been observed to have a widespread use all over the country. The combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is considered very effective for a number of conditions.
They go as follows:
- Acute bacterial sinusitis
- Acute medial otitis
- Recrudescence of chronic bronchitis
- Lower respiratory tract infections
- Skin and soft-tissue infections including animal bites and dentoalveolar abscess
- Bone infections including osteomyelitis
The Augmentin (view offer) dosing has to be defined relative to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid content and bioavailability of these components mainly defined by the way of administration (oral or intravenous). Other things that should be taken into account are pathogens’ susceptibility to bactericide agents, the severity and site of the infection, one’s renal function and age. It’s also better be taken at the start of a meal, although it doesn’t significantly affect drug’s absorption potential.
The commonly prescribed dose for adults is 500 milligrams every 10-11 hours or 250 milligrams every 6-7 hours. If the condition is defined as severe a 875-milligram dose is applied every 10-11 hours or,alternatively, 500-milligram dose every 6-7 hours. It is worth noting that 500-milligram and two 250-milligram tablets should not be used interchangeably. The numbers reflect only amoxicillin contents paired with a standard 125-milligram dose of clavulanic acid. This notion should not be ignored since prolonged use of Augmentin 875 instead of two 250-mg doses might contribute to developing antibiotic tolerance and the relapse of bacterial infection. Same goes to the idea of substituting 250-mg tablet of Augmentin with a chewable counterpart – Canada Health&Care Mall specialists strongly advise to stock to the recommended Augmentin dosage.
Special groups of people have to follow other courses of Augmentin dosage: neonates and infants aged less than 3 weeks may take 30 mg per kg daily with 12-hour intervals between intakes. In some cases, 125 mg/5 mL oral suspensions are allowed. Children older than 3 months may follow another dosing regimen – 200 mg/5 ml, 45 mg per kg daily every 12 hours or 25 mg per kg daily every 12 hours depending on the severity of the condition treated. Children that have weight over 40 kilograms may follow an adult course.
- Allergic reactions and hypersensitivity to active or filler components contained in the drug. The most frequent allergic cause is amoxicillin which might trigger an anaphylactic reaction. If there’s a history of allergy occurrence in response to anti-bacterial agents, such as penicillin or cephalosporins, the use of augmentin should be reconsidered before starting a therapeutic course. Canadian Health Mall specialists warn against continuing course if the reaction takes place shortly after drug intake as it might threaten with fatal outcome.
- People suffering from a hepatic impairment or liver dysfunction usually find using Augmentin excessively toxic, so it should be avoided.
- Clostridium difficile infection which is usually indicated by mild diarrhea, nausea and rarely by colitis. Any prior antibiotic exposure also contributes to the development of the disease, especially those of the fluoroquinolone and clindamycin groups. The obstinate nature of C. difficile makes it difficult to treat with antimicrobial treatments, so consulting your doctor is recommended.
- People with a history of recurring mononucleosis can get a skin rash in response to amoxicillin intake. It should also be mentioned that if you were priorly diagnosed with streptococcal pharyngitis and prescribed with Augmentin you should inform your doctor about a rash as it is one of the prime signs of inadequate diagnosis.
- Chewable tablets and suspension powder include phenylalanine as one of the filler components. Canadian Health Care Mall experts explicitly note that people who suffer from phenylketonuria are safe to use Augmentin. However, a prolonged use (1-2 months) is strictly prohibited due to excessive accumulation of phenylketones over time. The long-term effects of this process include mental retardation as well as increased proneness to seizures and delays in physical development.
- Oral blood thinners – if one is prescribed with both anticoagulant and penicillin-based antibiotic there is usually no harm in combining them. However, theoretically the interaction may take place and there were a few rare reports of delays observed in an international normalized ratio. Canadian Health&Care Mall recommends people taking warfarin or acenocoumarol to closely monitor the prothrombin time indicator while taking amoxicillin and a week after withdrawal.
- Concurrent use of amoxicillin and methotrexate medications may produce some serious adverse effects. When combined in large doses the substances cause competitive inhibition of renal tubular secretion of methotrexate serum. If any penicillin has to be taken anyway then you should contact your physician in order for him to revise methotrexate regimen and mitigate the risk of methotrexate intoxication.
- Probenecid – generally unadvisable for concomitant use with amoxicillin. Probenecid inhibits the absorption of amoxicillin
- causing higher blood levels of the substance. It does not, however, hinder clavulanic acid absorption making the drug much less potent.
- One of the commonly observed allergic drug-induced reactions is between allopurinol and amoxicillin. The concurrent use of both medications increases the risk of skin rashes, mouth sores, skin peeling and general fatigue. Once these symptoms are observed the amoxicillin course should be discontinued and you have to contact your doctor for an alternative treatment.
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